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Jurassic Park is an American media franchise centering on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Studios bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.
The book was successful, as was the 1993 film adaptation, which led to three sequels, although the third and fourth films were not based on novels, as the first two were. The software developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software, Sega of America, and Telltale Games have had the rights to develop video games since the 1993 film, and numerous games have been produced.
The Jurassic Park Ultimate Trilogy was released on DVD and Blu-ray on October 25, 2011 in North America. The first film was re-released in 3D on April 5, 2013. Since 1996, several water rides based on the series have been opened at various Universal theme parks.
The fourth film, Jurassic World, was initially scheduled to be released in the summer of 2005, but was delayed numerous times and was ultimately released in June 2015. It has grossed more than $1.66 billion, making it the fourth highest-grossing film of all time. When adjusted for monetary inflation, however, this film is the second highest grossing in the franchise after Jurassic Park. A fifth film is scheduled for a June 22, 2018 release date.
Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay around a pterosaur being cloned from fossil DNA. After wrestling with this idea for a while, he came up with the idea of Jurassic Park. Crichton worked on the idea for several years; he decided his first draft would have a theme park for the setting and a young boy as the main character. Response was extremely negative, so Crichton rewrote the story to make it from an adult's point of view, this story was better received.
Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the TV series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton put up a non-negotiable fee for $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Universal further paid Crichton $500,000 to adapt his own novel. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Columbia Pictures and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante also bid for the rights, but in May 1990, Universal eventually decided on Spielberg making the adaptation. Universal desperately needed money to keep their company alive, and partially succeeded with Jurassic Park, as it became a critical and commercial success.
After Jurassic Park was released to home video, Crichton was pressured from many sources for a sequel novel. Crichton declined all offers until Spielberg himself told him that he would be keen to direct a movie adaptation of the sequel, if one were written. Crichton began work almost immediately and in 1995 published The Lost World. Crichton confirmed that his novel had elements taken from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel of the same name. The book was also an outstanding success, both with professional and amateur critics.
The fictional company InGen (International Genetic Technologies, Inc.) is based in Palo Alto, California, and has one location in Europe. Nevertheless, most of InGen's research took place on the fictional islands of Isla Sorna and Isla Nublar. While official records indicated InGen was just one of any number of small 1980s genetic engineering start-ups, the events of the novel and film revealed to a select group that InGen had discovered a method of cloning dinosaurs and other animals (including a quagga) using blood extracted from mosquitoes trapped in amber during various periods in time, ranging from the Mesozoic era to the 1800s. Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction describe InGen as comparable to another "sleazy organization". Other sources reference the company's receiving the baby T. rex as an allusion to other exploitative entrepreneurs depicted in King Kong. Ken Gelder describes InGen as "resolutely secretive, just like the firm in Grisham's novel."
Jurassic Park (1993)
Before Crichton's book was even published, studios such as Warner Bros., Columbia TriStar, 20th Century Fox, and Universal had already begun bidding to acquire the picture rights. Spielberg, with the backing of Universal Studios, acquired the rights to the novel before its publication in 1990, and Crichton was hired by Universal Studios for an additional US$500,000 to adapt the novel into a proper screenplay. Malia Scotch Marmo, who was a writer on Spielberg's Hook, wrote the next draft of Jurassic Park, but is not credited. David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence, and made numerous changes to the characters.
When an incident results in the death of an employee, Jurassic Park owner John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) brings in three specialists to sign off on the park to calm investors. The specialists, paleontologist Alan Grant (Sam Neill), paleobotanist Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum), are surprised to see the island park's main attraction are living, breathing dinosaurs, created with a mixture of fossilized DNA and genetic cross-breeding/cloning. However, when lead programmer Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight) shuts down the park's power to sneak out with samples of the dinosaur embryos to sell to a corporate rival, the dinosaurs break free, and the survivors are forced to find a way to turn the power back on and make it out alive. The film also stars Bob Peck, Martin Ferrero, Ariana Richards, Joseph Mazzello, and Samuel L. Jackson.
Jurassic Park is regarded as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery, and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the effects, though reactions to other elements of the picture, such as character development, were mixed. During its release, the film grossed more than $914 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released up to that time (surpassing E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and surpassed 4 years later by Titanic), and it is currently the 17th highest grossing feature film (taking inflation into account, it is the 20th-highest-grossing film in North America). It is the most financially successful film for NBCUniversal and Steven Spielberg.
Jurassic Park had two re-releases: the first on September 23, 2011 in the United Kingdom and the second in which it was converted into 3D on April 5, 2013 for its 20th Anniversary, which resulted in the film passing the $1 billion mark at the worldwide box office.
The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)
As soon as the novel was published, a film was in pre-production, with a target release date of mid-1997. The film was a commercial success, breaking many box-office records when released. The film had mixed reviews, similar to its predecessor in terms of characterization. Much like the first film, The Lost World made a number of changes to the plot and characters from the book, replacing the corporate rivals with an internal power struggle and changing the roles/characterizations of several protagonists.
When a vacationing family stumbles upon the dinosaurs of Isla Sorna, a secondary island where the animals were bred en masse and allowed to grow before being transported to the park, Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) is called in by John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) to lead a team to document the island to turn it into a preserve, where the animals can roam free without interference from the outside world. Malcolm agrees to go when he discovers his girlfriend, paleontologist Sarah Harding (Julianne Moore) is already on the island, while at the same time Hammond's nephew Peter Ludlow (Arliss Howard) has taken over his uncle's company and leads a team of hunters to capture the creatures and bring them back to a theme park in San Diego. The two groups clash and are ultimately forced to work together to evade the predatory creatures and survive the second island. The film also stars Pete Postlethwaite, Richard Schiff, Vince Vaughn, Vanessa Lee Chester, Peter Stormare, and a young Camilla Belle.
Jurassic Park III (2001)
Joe Johnston had been interested in directing the sequel to Jurassic Park and approached his friend Steven Spielberg about the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct. Spielberg, nevertheless, stayed involved in this film by becoming its executive producer. Production began on August 30, 2000 with filming in California, Oahu, and Molokai. It is the first Jurassic Park film not to be based on a novel. The film was a success and had mixed reviews from critics. Most were split on whether the third installment was better or worse than its predecessor. The film once again suffered reviews mentioning little to no characterization.
When their son goes missing while parasailing at Isla Sorna, the Kirbys (William H. Macy & Téa Leoni) hire Alan Grant (Sam Neill) under false pretenses to help them navigate the island. Believing it to be nothing more than sight-seeing, and that he will act as a dinosaur guide from the safety of their plane, he's startled to find them landing on the ground, where they are stalked by a super-predator, the Spinosaurus, which destroys their plane. As they search for the Kirbys' son, the situation grows dire as Velociraptors (more intelligent than ever) hunt their group, and they must find a way off the island. The film also stars Alessandro Nivola, Michael Jeter, Trevor Morgan, Mark Harelik, and Laura Dern.
Jurassic World (2015)
Steven Spielberg devised a story idea for a fourth film in 2001, during production of Jurassic Park III. In 2002, William Monahan was hired to write the script, with the film's release scheduled for 2005. Monahan finished the first draft of the script in 2003, with the film's plot revolving around dinosaurs escaping to the mainland. Sam Neill and Richard Attenborough were set to reprise their characters, while Keira Knightley was in talks for two separate roles. In 2004, John Sayles wrote two drafts of the script. Sayles' first draft involved a team of Deinonychus being trained for use in rescue missions. His second draft involved genetically modified dinosaur-human mercenaries. Both drafts were scrapped. In 2006, a new script was being worked on. Laura Dern was contacted to reprise her role, with the film expected for release in 2008. The film was further delayed by the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike. Mark Protosevich wrote two film treatments in 2011, which were rejected. Rise of the Planet of the Apes screenwriters Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver were hired in 2012 to write an early draft of the script. In 2013, Colin Trevorrow was announced as a director and co-writer, with the film scheduled for release on June 12, 2015. The film was shot in 3D.
The film features a new park, Jurassic World, built on the remains of the original park on Isla Nublar. The film sees the park run by Simon Masrani (Irrfan Khan) and Masrani Corp, and features the return of Dr. Henry Wu (B.D. Wong) from the first film, who harbors a grudge against his former employer. Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, and Jake Johnson star, while Vincent D'Onofrio portrayed the main antagonist, Vic Hoskins. The cast also includes Lauren Lapkus, Ty Simpkins, Nick Robinson, Omar Sy, and Judy Greer. The primary dinosaur antagonist is Indominus rex, a genetically-modified hybrid of Tyrannosaurus rex and several other species including Velociraptor, cuttlefish, and tree frog.
Fifth film (2018)
During early conversations on Jurassic World, Spielberg told Trevorrow that he was interested in having several more films made. In April 2014, Trevorrow announced that sequels had been discussed: "We wanted to create something that would be a little bit less arbitrary and episodic, and something that could potentially arc into a series that would feel like a complete story." Trevorrow hinted that Chris Pratt and Omar Sy could reprise their roles for the next film, and said he would direct the film if asked. Trevorrow later told Spielberg that he would only focus on directing one film in the series. In May 2015, Trevorrow announced that he would not direct another film in the series: "I would be involved in some way, but not as director." Trevorrow felt that different directors could bring different qualities to future films.
On June 3, 2015, Trevorrow stated that Jurassic World left story possibilities open for the sequel's director that could potentially allow the film to take place in a different location, rather than on an island. Trevorrow hinted that the next film could involve dinosaurs being used by other companies for non-entertainment purposes, possibly in agriculture, medicine, and war: "I really like the idea that this group of geneticists aren't the only people who can make a dinosaur [...] when you think of the differences between Apple and PC – the minute something goes open-source, there are all kinds of entities and interests that may be able to utilise that technology."
On June 8, 2015, Frank Marshall met with Trevorrow and Universal Studios to discuss a Jurassic World sequel. Later that month, Trevorrow did not deny that the film could involve "dinosaur soldiers", and said the series is "not always gonna be about a Jurassic Park," saying he felt that future films could explore the idea of dinosaurs and humans co-existing together. That same month, Trevorrow hinted that the next film may not involve the Jurassic World theme park, and said he would be interested in seeing a Jurassic Park film made by one of several Spanish horror film directors, whose names he did not mention. Director Juan Antonio Bayona was considered for the job, but was already signed on to direct the World War Z sequel. Pratt and Simpkins confirmed in June 2015 that they are signed on for future films.
On July 23, 2015, Universal announced that a fifth film is scheduled for a June 22, 2018 release date. It was also announced that Trevorrow and Connolly will write the script; that the film will be produced by Frank Marshall; that Spielberg and Trevorrow will act as executive producers; and that Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard will reprise their roles from the previous film. The next day, Trevorrow said the series "isn't always going to be limited to theme parks," and confirmed that the film would not involve "a bunch of dinosaurs chasing people on an island. That'll get old real fast."
In August 2015, Howard confirmed that the script was being written. That same month, it was also announced that the film will be released in the UK two weeks early, on June 7, 2018. In September 2015, Trevorrow said the film's story was inspired by a quote from Dr. Alan Grant in the first film: "Dinosaurs and man, separated by 65 million years of evolution, have been thrown back into the mix together. How can we know what to expect?" In October 2015, B. D. Wong said he "would be happy to return" as Dr. Henry Wu, while Howard announced that filming would begin in 2017. That month, Howard also said she would be interested in seeing characters from earlier Jurassic Park films return for the fifth film, saying, "I could see versions of the film where a lot of the characters come back."
In January 2016, it was reported that Bayona could be a candidate to direct the film after he left the World War Z sequel.
Sixth film (TBA)
In September 2015, Trevorrow said that Bryce Dallas Howard's character would evolve the most over the course of the second Jurassic Park trilogy. In October 2015, Frank Marshall confirmed plans for a sixth film in the series. In November 2015, Universal Pictures chairman Donna Langley said that Trevorrow and Spielberg have a story idea for the sixth film.
| Jurassic Park|
| The Lost World: Jurassic Park|
| Jurassic Park III|
| Jurassic World|
| Fifth film|
| Sixth film|
|Dr. Alan Grant||Sam Neill||Sam Neill|
|Dr. Ellie Sattler||Laura Dern||Laura Dern|
|Dr. Ian Malcolm||Jeff Goldblum|
|John Hammond||Richard Attenborough||Template:N/A|
|Lex Murphy||Ariana Richards|
|Tim Murphy||Joseph Mazzello|
|Dr. Henry Wu||B. D. Wong||B. D. Wong|
|Robert Muldoon||Bob Peck|
|Ray Arnold||Samuel L. Jackson|
|Dennis Nedry||Wayne Knight|
|Donald Gennaro||Martin Ferrero|
|Lewis Dodgson||Cameron Thor|
|Dr. Harding||Jerry Molen|
|Dr. Sarah Harding||Julianne Moore|
|Kelly Curtis||Vanessa Lee Chester|
|Nick van Owen||Vince Vaughn|
|Roland Tembo||Pete Postlethwaite|
|Peter Ludlow||Arliss Howard|
|Ajay Sidhu||Harvey Jason|
|Dr. Robert Burke||Thomas F. Duffy|
|Dieter Stark||Peter Stormare|
|Eddie Carr||Richard Schiff|
|Paul Kirby||William H. Macy|
|Amanda Kirby||Téa Leoni|
|Billy Brennan||Alessandro Nivola|
|Eric Kirby||Trevor Morgan|
|M. B. Nash||Bruce A. Young|
|Ben Hildebrand||Mark Harelik|
|Owen Grady||Chris Pratt|
|Claire Dearing||Bryce Dallas Howard|
|Zach Mitchell||Nick Robinson|
|Gray Mitchell||Ty Simpkins|
|Vic Hoskins||Vincent D'Onofrio|
|Simon Masrani||Irrfan Khan|
|Lowery Cruthers||Jake Johnson|
|Vivian Krill||Lauren Lapkus|
|Katashi Hamada||Brian Tee|
|Karen Mitchell||Judy Greer|
|Scott Mitchell||Andy Buckley|
|Zara Young||Katie McGrath|
| Jurassic Park|
| The Lost World:|
| Jurassic Park III|
| Jurassic World|
| Untitled fifth film|
|Director||Steven Spielberg||Joe Johnston||Colin Trevorrow||TBA|
|Producer||Kathleen Kennedy & Gerald R. Molen||Gerald R. Molen & Colin Wilson||Kathleen Kennedy & Larry J. Franco||Frank Marshall & Patrick Crowley||Frank Marshall|
| Screenplay (1-2, 4-5)|
|Michael Crichton & David Koepp||David Koepp||Peter Buchman, Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor||Rick Jaffa, Amanda Silver, Derek Connolly & Colin Trevorrow||Derek Connolly & Colin Trevorrow|
|Composer||John Williams|| Don Davis|
| Michael Giacchino|
|Editor||Michael Kahn||Robert Dalva||Kevin Stitt||Template:N/A|
|Cinematographer||Dean Cundey||Janusz Kamiński||Shelly Johnson||John Schwartzman||Template:N/A|
|Running time||127 minutes||129 minutes||92 minutes||124 minutes||Template:N/A|
|Jurassic Park||The Lost World: Jurassic Park||Jurassic Park III||Jurassic World|
|Jurassic Park||The Lost World: Jurassic Park||Jurassic Park III||Jurassic World|
|Best Score Soundtrack||Nominated||Nominated|
Box office performance
|Film||Release date||Box office gross||Current box office ranking||Budget||Ref(s)|
|North America||Worldwide|| All time|
|Jurassic Park||June 11, 1993||$402,453,853|| $1,029,153,882|
($914,691,118 - original release)
| The Lost World:|
|May 23, 1997||$229,086,679||$618,638,999|| #99|
|Jurassic Park III||July 18, 2001||$181,171,875||$368,780,809||#243||$93 million|||
|Jurassic World||June 12, 2015||$652,054,116||$1,666,054,116|| #4|
| List indicator(s)
Critical and public response
|Jurassic Park||93% (116 reviews)||68 (20 reviews)||A|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park||52% (67 reviews)||59 (18 reviews)||B+|
|Jurassic Park III||50% (163 reviews)||42 (30 reviews)||B-|
|Jurassic World||71% (257 reviews)||59 (49 reviews)||A|
From June 1993 to August 1997 the now-defunct Topps Comics published comic adaptions of Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park, as well as several tie-in series.
- Jurassic Park #0–4 (June – September 1993). Adaptation of the film, adapted by Walter Simonson and pencilled by Gil Kane. Each issue had two covers – a main cover by Gil Kane, with the variant by Dave Cockrum. Issue #0 features two prequel stories to the film, and was only available with the trade paperback of the film adaption.
- Jurassic Park: Raptor #1–2 (November – December 1993). First part of the "Raptor" trilogy. Written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Armando Gil and Dell Barras.
- Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1–4 (March – June 1994). Second part of the "Raptor" trilogy Written by Steve Englehart, pencilled by Armando Gil (#1) and Chaz Truog, with covers by Michael Golden.
- Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1–4 (July – October 1994). Third part of the "Raptor" trilogy. Written by Steve Englehart, pencilled by Neil Vokes, with covers by Michael Golden.
- Jurassic Park: Annual #1 (May 1995). Featuring two stories, one being a sequel and one being a prequel. Written by Bob Almond Michael Golden and Renée Witterstaetter, pencilled by Claude St. Aubin and Ed Murr, with a cover by Michael Golden.
- Return to Jurassic Park #1–9 (April 1995 – February 1996). Ongoing series. The first four issues were written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Joe Staton. The next four issues were written by Tom Bierbaum and Mary Bierbaum, being drawn by Armando Gil. The first 8 issues had covers by Michael Golden. The ninth and final issue was a jam book written by Keith Giffen and Dwight Jon Zimmerman, featuring artwork by such acclaimed artists as Jason Pearson, Adam Hughes, Paul Gulacy, John Byrne, Kevin Maguire, Mike Zeck, George Pérez and Paul Chadwick, with a cover by John Bolton.
- The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4 (May – August 1997). Adaptation of the second film. Adapted by Don McGregor and pencilled by Jeff Butler (#1–2) and Claude St. Aubin (#3–4). Each issue of the series featured two covers – one by Walter Simonson and a photo cover.
Beginning in June 2010, IDW Publishing began publishing Jurassic Park comics. They also acquired the rights to reprint the issues published by Topps in the 1990s, which they began to do in trade paperback format starting in November 2010. Mark Schultz will be drawing a future cover.
- Jurassic Park: Redemption #1–5 (June 2010 – October 2010). Five-issue series written by Bob Schreck with art by Nate van Dyke. Each issue has a main cover penciled by Tom Yeates, with variant covers by Frank Miller, Arthur Adams, Paul Pope, Bernie Wrightson, and Bill Stout, respectively.
- Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert #1–4 (January 2011 – April 2011) Four-issue series written and illustrated by John Byrne.
- Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games #1–5 (September 2011 – January 2012) Five-issue series written by Greg Bear and Erik Bear, with art by Jorge Jiménez and a variant cover by Geof Darrow.
This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||No. of Pages||ISBN|
|Jurassic Park||Jurassic Park #1–4||ISBN 1-85286-502-4|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park||The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4||ISBN 1-85286-885-6|
|Jurassic Park Vol. 1: Redemption||Jurassic Park Redemption #1–5||120 pages||ISBN 1-60010-850-4|
|Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert||Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert #1–4||104 pages||ISBN 1-60010-923-3|
|Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games||Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games #1–5||112 pages||ISBN 1-61377-002-2|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 1||Jurassic Park #1–4||104 pages||ISBN 1-60010-760-5|
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 2: Raptors' Revenge
|Juassic Park #0, Jurassic Park: Raptor #1–2, Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1–4||192 pages||ISBN 1-60010-885-7|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 3: Amazon Adventure!||Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1–4, Jurassic Park: Annual #1||124 pages||ISBN 1-61377-042-1|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 4: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 1||Return to Jurassic Park #1–4||128 pages|| ISBN 1-61377-117-7
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 5: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 2||Return to Jurassic Park #5–9||108 pages|| ISBN 978-1613775332
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 6: The Lost World||The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4||104 pages|| ISBN 978-1613779156
Cancelled animated series
After the success of Jurassic Park in 1993, animation veteran and comic artist Will Meugniot (then working at Universal Cartoon Studios for various projects, including Exosquad) contacted artist William Stout to ask if he would be interested in designing a Jurassic Park animated series. According to Stout, "This was not going to be a kiddy show (although kids of all ages, including myself, could enjoy it). They wanted the show to be a mature prime time series with top writers and state-of-the-art television animation augmented with quite a bit of CG animation." Universal Animation Studios wanted the show to have the look of a graphic novel.
Stout was hired to work on the series and subsequently made a trailer to demonstrate how the series would look, and how it would combine traditional animation with computer animation. The series required Spielberg's final approval before it could go into production. However, Spielberg had grown tired of the massive promotion and merchandise revolving around the film, and never watched the trailer. The series was never put into production.
In 1998, Kenner introduced Jurassic Park: Chaos Effect, a series of dinosaur toys based on a premise that scientists had created dinosaur hybrids consisting of DNA from different creatures. An animated television series was planned to accompany the toyline, but was never produced, for unknown reasons.
When the first film was released in 1993, two different video game publishers were given the rights to publish games based on it, Sega and Ocean Software. Both produced several different games based on the movie for several different game systems, including the NES and Sega Genesis. In 1994, Ocean Software produced a sequel to the first game in the series for the Game Boy and SNES systems. Universal Interactive also produced an interactive game for the ill-fated 3DO system.
For the second film in the franchise, DreamWorks Interactive released five games for the most popular systems at the time. The third film had the biggest marketing push, spawning seven video games for PC and Game Boy Advance. A number of lightgun arcade games were also released for all three films.
In 2003, Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis was released for the Xbox, PlayStation 2 and PC.
Jurassic Park: The Game
An episodic video game based on the Jurassic Park franchise, bridging the story of the first two movies and entitled Jurassic Park: The Game, was developed by Telltale Games in a deal with Universal. It was released on November 15, 2011 to a generally mixed reception, with reviewers praising the story but criticizing the characters and gameplay. The game was acknowledged canon with Jurassic Park continuity by writers of the original Jurassic Park. The game takes place during and after the events of the original film, and follows a new group of survivors trying to escape Isla Nublar. The game features several dinosaurs from the movie, including new additions like Troodon and a Tylosaurus, among other creatures. The game is available on PC, Mac, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and iPads.
Lego Jurassic World
Lego Jurassic World is a 2015 Lego action-adventure video game developed by Traveller's Tales and published by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, for the PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita, Nintendo 3DS, Wii U, Xbox One, Xbox 360, and Microsoft Windows. It followed the plots of the series' four films, including Jurassic World, and was released on June 12, 2015.
On June 21, 1996, Universal Studios Hollywood opened Jurassic Park: The Ride. Universal's Islands of Adventure later opened Jurassic Park River Adventure. The rides are heavily themed on the first three films. Other rides based on the series have also been opened at Universal Studios Japan and Universal Studios Singapore (Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure).
- ↑ "Jurassic Park Re-release". The Hollywood Reporter. Universal. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Jurassic Park". MichaelCrichton.com. Retrieved January 1, 2009.
- ↑ Template:Cite video
- ↑ Appelo, Tim (December 7, 1990). "Leaping Lizards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Jurassic Park DVD Production Notes
- ↑ Jurassic Park – Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes. Rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-04.
- ↑ Jurassic Park (1993)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 The Lost World: Jurassic Park DVD Special Features – Production Notes
- ↑ The Lost World. MichaelCrichton.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-04.
- ↑ "The Lost World Jurassic Park (1997)". British Film Institute. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 as described in Jurassic Park and The Lost World, both novels and films.
- ↑ Kirk H. Beetz, Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction: biography & resources (Beacham Pub., 1996), 2238.
- ↑ Nigel Morris, The Cinema of Steven Spielberg: Empire of Light (Wallflower Press, 2007), 249.
- ↑ Ken Gelder, Popular Fiction: The Logics and Practices of a Literary Field (Routledge, 2004), 113.
- ↑ "'Jurassic Park' to be re-released in 3D". NME. March 17, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- ↑ Rich, Katey (March 16, 2012). "Jurassic Park 3D Coming To Theaters In July 2013". Cinema Blend. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- ↑ Armitage, Hugh (March 16, 2012). "'Jurassic Park 3D' coming in 2013". Digital Spy. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- ↑ Template:Cite video
- ↑ "Jurassic Park III". British Film Institute. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park III". Hollywood.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park IV Update:". TheZReview.co.uk. June 12, 2002. Archived from the original on 2002-11-02.
- ↑ Linder, Brian (November 7, 2002). "Jurassic Park IV Goes Ahead". IGN. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ McNary, Dave; Diorio, Carl (December 22, 2002). "Early-bird specials". Variety. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ "Jurassic IV Draft Done". Sci Fi Wire. July 13, 2003. Archived from the original on July 27, 2003.
- ↑ "More on JPIV". IGN.com. January 30, 2003. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park 4 plot details?". MovieWeb.com. January 31, 2003. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Davidson, Paul (July 11, 2003). "Sam Neill Confirms Jurassic Park IV". IGN.com. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ "Jurass Park Quattro – Guess who will be back!". AintItCool.com. September 19, 2003. Archived from the original on 2004-04-01.
- ↑ Knightly in Boxoffice via "Knightley Confirms JP4 Talks?". CountingDown.com. July 14, 2003. Archived from the original on 2004-07-03.
There were actually two roles in 'Jurassic Park IV' Steven thought I might fit. First there was the granddaughter part, which wasn't all that big a role; she was only in it at the beginning. The other part he was considering for me was substantially larger, but I won't go into any details in case I make Steven angry (laughs). ... I truly don't know if I'll end up getting either part or not. The script is pretty much locked down, but I think they're still working on final drafts at the moment.
- ↑ Otto, Jeff. "Exclusive Interview with John Sayles". Reelz.com. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ Franklin, Garth (May 12, 2004). "News Bites: Wednesday, May 12th 2004". DarkHorizons.com. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ Moriarty (August 17, 2004). "AICN Exclusive!! Moriarty’s Been to 'Jurassic Park 4' and Returns to Tell the Tale!!". AintItCool.com. Archived from the original on 2005-02-06.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park IV shooting script (first draft by John Sayles)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ Bruder, Jessica (May 30, 2005). "Sayles' people". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on 2014-09-23.
- ↑ Goldberg, Matt (October 12, 2012). "Check out the Humanosaurus Concept Art for Scrapped Jurassic Park 4 Script". Collider. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ "Humanosaurus, a cross between human being and dinosaur". Stan Winston School of Character Arts. June 24, 2015. Archived from the original on August 7, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
Image: conceptual artwork by creature designer Carlos Huante for JURASSIC PARK 4, drawn early in project's development.
- ↑ "Jack Horner on the state of Jurassic Park 4!!!". AintItCool.com. January 28, 2006. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- ↑ "Frank Marshall On Eight Below, Indy IV and Jurassic Park". Empire. April 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-08.
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- ↑ "Jurassic Park 4 Gets a Director (Hint: It's Not Steven Spielberg)". E! Online. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- ↑ Jurassic Park 4 to be directed by Colin Trevorrow
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg's 'Jurassic World' to Hit Theaters in June 2015". TheWrap. 2013-09-10. Retrieved 2014-08-05.
- ↑ "Exclusive: Jurassic Park 4 Targeted for 2015, to be Shot in 3D". Retrieved July 1, 2013.
- ↑ "‘Jurassic Park 4′ Titled ‘Jurassic World’; Gets Summer 2015 Release Date". Screenrant.com. Retrieved 2014-08-05.
- ↑ "‘Jurassic World’ Director Offers Filming Details and Confirms Returning Character". Screenrant.com. Retrieved 2014-08-05.
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- ↑ 52.0 52.1 52.2 Weintraub, Steve (June 13, 2015). "Jurassic World: Colin Trevorrow Talks Building a Foundation for Future Installments". Collider.com. Event occurs at 4:30–7:58. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 Phil de Semlyen (April 23, 2014). "Exclusive: Jurassic World Sequels Planned". Empire. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- ↑ "Colin Trevorrow Not Directing the Next Jurassic Park Film". ComingSoon.net. May 31, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- ↑ Fullerton, Huw (June 3, 2015). "Jurassic World sequel could see Apple vs Microsoft-style dinosaur tech race". Radio Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- ↑ Sciretta, Peter (June 15, 2015). "Jurassic World 2: Colin Trevorrow and Frank Marshall Talk Future of the Franchise". SlashFilm.com. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- ↑ Ward, Tom (June 10, 2015). "Will Jurassic World Be As Good As Jurassic Park?". Esquire. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
- ↑ Stack, Tim (June 14, 2015). "Jurassic World director Colin Trevorrow on where the franchise can go next". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- ↑ de Semlyen, Phil (June 15, 2015). "Empire Spoiler Podcast: Ten Secrets Of Jurassic World". Empire. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- ↑ Siegel, Tatiana; Kit, Borys (October 30, 2015). "'World War Z' Sequel Moves Forward After 'Jurassic World 2' Drama (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- ↑ Stack, Tim (June 13, 2015). "Chris Pratt is signed on for more Jurassic World movies". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- ↑ Davis, Brandon (June 10, 2015). "Ty Simpkins Talks Jurassic World, Marvel Movies, & Deadpool". ComicBook.com. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- ↑ Rebecca Ford (July 23, 2015). "'Jurassic World 2' Set for 2018". The Hollywood Reporter. (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- ↑ Rundle, Michael (July 24, 2015). "Exclusive: Jurassic World 2 may be off-island, with open-source dinos". Wired UK. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- ↑ "Bryce Dallas Howard on Her Hope for the Jurassic World Sequel". IGN. August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- ↑ Karmali, Luke (August 13, 2015). "Jurassic World Sequel Opening in UK Cinemas Before US". IGN. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 Han, Angie (September 21, 2015). "Which 'Jurassic Park' Quote Inspired 'Jurassic World'? Which One Will Inspire 'Jurassic World 2'?". Slashfilm. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- ↑ Krupa, Daniel (October 20, 2015). "Jurassic World Star Wants His Character to Die in the Sequel". IGN.com. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- ↑ "Bryce Dallas Howard - eTalk Extended Jurassic World Interview". YouTube.com. October 20, 2015. Event occurs at 7:24. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- ↑ Krupa, Daniel (October 16, 2015). "Classic Characters Could Return for Jurassic World 2". IGN. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- ↑ Fleming Jr, Mike (January 11, 2016). "Brad Pitt 'World War Z' Sequel Loses Director Juan Antonio Bayona". Deadline. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- ↑ "Frank Marshall Interview - Jurassic World (Jurassic Cast ep 22)". YouTube.com. Jurassic Cast Podcast. October 19, 2015. Event occurs at 2:35–3:09. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- ↑ McClintock, Pamela; Masters, Kim (November 4, 2015). "Studio Chiefs Unleashed: 6 Top Execs Spar Over Gender Pay, Sony Hack and 'Star Wars' Box Office". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- ↑ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park III (2001)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- ↑ "Jurassic World (2015)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park Moviesat the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- ↑ "Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
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- ↑ 88.0 88.1 Stout, William (April 26, 2014). "My Top Ten Favorite Dinosaur Films – Part One". WilliamStout.com. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
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- ↑ Kollar, Phil (June 8, 2010). "Telltale Creating Episodic Jurassic Park Game". GameInformer.com. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
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